਀㰀琀椀琀氀攀㸀戀椀漀最爀愀瀀栀礀   䌀栀愀爀氀攀猀ⴀ䔀搀漀甀愀爀搀 䜀甀椀氀氀愀甀洀攀⸀ 吀栀攀 一漀戀攀氀 倀爀椀稀攀 椀渀 倀栀礀猀椀挀猀 ਀㰀䴀䔀吀䄀 栀琀琀瀀ⴀ攀焀甀椀瘀㴀䌀漀渀琀攀渀琀ⴀ匀琀礀氀攀ⴀ吀礀瀀攀 挀漀渀琀攀渀琀㴀琀攀砀琀⼀挀猀猀㸀㰀䰀䤀一䬀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀猀琀礀氀攀⸀挀猀猀∀ 琀礀瀀攀㴀琀攀砀琀⼀挀猀猀 爀攀氀㴀猀琀礀氀攀猀栀攀攀琀㸀 ਀㰀戀漀搀礀㸀 ਀ ਀㰀栀㈀ 愀氀椀最渀㴀挀攀渀琀攀爀㸀  䌀栀愀爀氀攀猀ⴀ䔀搀漀甀愀爀搀 䜀甀椀氀氀愀甀洀攀 The Nobel Prize in Physics 1920 ਀㰀栀㌀ 愀氀椀最渀㴀挀攀渀琀攀爀㸀戀椀漀最爀愀瀀栀礀㰀⼀栀㌀㸀㰀栀㐀㸀 ਀ ਀ ਀㰀椀洀最 愀氀椀最渀㴀氀攀昀琀 戀漀爀搀攀爀㴀㈀ 猀爀挀㴀∀最甀椀氀氀愀甀洀攀⸀最椀昀∀㸀 ਀ ਀

Charles-Edouard Guillaume was born in Fleurier, Switzerland, on February 15, 1861. Guillaume received his high school education at the Neuchâtel gymnasium. At the age of 17, he enrolled in the Zurich Polytechnic (later the Federal Institute of Technology). He rapidly developed an interest in physics, later claiming that François Arago's text, Éloges académiques, was particularly influential on his decision to pursue science as a career. Guillaume was awarded a Ph.D. in 1882 for his thesis on electrolytic capacitors.਀

Guillaume spent his compulsory year of military service as an artillery officer, during which time he studied mechanics and ballistics. He was then offered a position with the newly created International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sèvres, France, just outside Paris. He worked there over the next half century, becoming associate director of the bureau in 1902, director in 1905, and finally honorary director upon his retirement in 1936. Guillaume's earliest work at the bureau was in the establishment, duplication, and distribution of international standards. That work included the most fundamental metrological operations, such as calibrating thermometers and making precise copies of the standard meter for distribution to countries around the world.਀

It was the latter task that resulted in an accidental discovery for which Guillaume is perhaps best known. The standard meter bar kept at the bureau in Sèvres had been made of a platinum-iridium alloy to prevent corrosion and other changes. ਀

Making dozens of copies of this bar from such costly metals was, however, prohibitively expensive. As a result, Guillaume began to look for other materials from which to make duplicates of the standard meter bar.਀伀渀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 愀氀氀漀礀猀 䜀甀椀氀氀愀甀洀攀 瀀爀攀瀀愀爀攀搀 挀漀渀猀椀猀琀攀搀 漀昀 愀戀漀甀琀 猀攀瘀攀渀 瀀愀爀琀猀 椀爀漀渀 琀漀 琀栀爀攀攀 瀀愀爀琀猀 渀椀挀欀攀氀⸀ 䤀渀 眀漀爀欀椀渀最 眀椀琀栀 琀栀椀猀 愀氀氀漀礀Ⰰ 栀攀 昀漀甀渀搀 琀栀愀琀 椀琀 栀愀搀 愀渀 攀砀琀爀攀洀攀氀礀 氀漀眀 挀漀攀昀昀椀挀椀攀渀琀 漀昀 攀砀瀀愀渀猀椀漀渀⸀ 䠀攀 搀攀挀椀搀攀搀 琀漀 甀渀搀攀爀琀愀欀攀 愀 猀礀猀琀攀洀愀琀椀挀 猀琀甀搀礀 漀昀 漀琀栀攀爀 椀爀漀渀ⴀ渀椀挀欀攀氀 愀氀氀漀礀猀 愀渀搀 攀瘀攀渀琀甀愀氀氀礀 昀漀甀渀搀 漀渀攀 眀栀漀猀攀 挀漀攀昀昀椀挀椀攀渀琀 漀昀 攀砀瀀愀渀猀椀漀渀 眀愀猀 稀攀爀漀⸀ 吀栀椀猀 愀氀氀漀礀Ⰰ 挀漀渀琀愀椀渀椀渀最 愀戀漀甀琀 ㌀㘀─ 渀椀挀欀攀氀 愀渀搀 㘀㐀─ 椀爀漀渀Ⰰ 眀愀猀 氀愀琀攀爀 渀愀洀攀搀 椀渀瘀愀爀⸀ 吀栀攀 瘀愀氀甀攀 漀昀 椀渀瘀愀爀 椀渀 洀攀琀爀漀氀漀最礀 椀猀 漀戀瘀椀漀甀猀⸀ 䴀攀愀猀甀爀椀渀最 搀攀瘀椀挀攀猀 洀愀搀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀 愀氀氀漀礀 眀椀氀氀 渀漀琀 挀栀愀渀最攀 椀渀 猀椀稀攀 愀琀 愀氀氀 愀猀 愀 爀攀猀甀氀琀 漀昀 挀栀愀渀最攀猀 椀渀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀甀爀攀⸀ 䈀甀琀 椀渀瘀愀爀 猀漀漀渀 昀漀甀渀搀 愀瀀瀀氀椀挀愀琀椀漀渀猀 椀渀 洀愀渀礀 漀琀栀攀爀 昀椀攀氀搀猀⸀ 䘀漀爀 攀砀愀洀瀀氀攀Ⰰ 椀琀 戀攀挀愀洀攀 椀渀瘀愀氀甀愀戀氀攀 椀渀 挀氀漀挀欀洀愀欀椀渀最Ⰰ 愀猀 搀椀搀 愀 猀攀挀漀渀搀 愀氀氀漀礀 椀渀瘀攀渀琀攀搀 戀礀 䜀甀椀氀氀愀甀洀攀 挀愀氀氀攀搀 攀氀椀渀瘀愀爀⸀ 吀栀攀 眀愀琀挀栀 瀀愀爀琀 挀愀氀氀攀搀 琀栀攀 戀愀氀愀渀挀攀Ⰰ 椀昀 椀琀 挀漀渀琀愀椀渀攀搀 漀渀攀 漀昀 琀栀攀猀攀 琀眀漀 愀氀氀漀礀猀Ⰰ 攀瘀攀渀琀甀愀氀氀礀 戀攀挀愀洀攀 欀渀漀眀渀 愀猀 愀 ∀䜀甀椀氀氀愀甀洀攀 戀愀氀愀渀挀攀⸀∀

਀䤀渀 愀搀搀椀琀椀漀渀 琀漀 琀栀攀 一漀戀攀氀 倀爀椀稀攀 栀攀 眀愀猀 愀眀愀爀搀攀搀 椀渀 ㄀㤀㈀ Ⰰ 䜀甀椀氀氀愀甀洀攀 爀攀挀攀椀瘀攀搀 愀 渀甀洀戀攀爀 漀昀 漀琀栀攀爀 栀漀渀漀爀猀 搀甀爀椀渀最 栀椀猀 氀椀昀攀琀椀洀攀Ⰰ 椀渀挀氀甀搀椀渀最 猀攀氀攀挀琀椀漀渀 愀猀 愀 最爀愀渀搀 漀昀昀椀挀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䰀攀最椀漀渀 漀昀 䠀漀渀漀爀Ⰰ 攀氀攀挀琀椀漀渀 愀猀 瀀爀攀猀椀搀攀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䘀爀攀渀挀栀 倀栀礀猀椀挀愀氀 匀漀挀椀攀琀礀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 爀攀挀攀椀瀀琀 漀昀 栀漀渀漀爀愀爀礀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 甀渀椀瘀攀爀猀椀琀椀攀猀 漀昀 䜀攀渀攀瘀愀Ⰰ 一攀甀挀栀琀攀氀Ⰰ 愀渀搀 倀愀爀椀猀⸀ 䜀甀椀氀氀愀甀洀攀 眀愀猀 洀愀爀爀椀攀搀 椀渀 ㄀㠀㠀㠀 琀漀 䄀⸀ 䴀⸀ 吀愀甀昀昀氀椀挀栀㬀 琀栀攀礀 栀愀搀 琀栀爀攀攀 挀栀椀氀搀爀攀渀⸀ 䜀甀椀氀氀愀甀洀攀 搀椀攀搀 愀琀 匀瘀爀攀猀 漀渀 䨀甀渀攀 ㄀㌀Ⰰ ㄀㤀㌀㠀⸀

਀ ਀ ਀ ਀ ਀ 䌀栀愀爀氀攀猀ⴀ䔀搀漀甀愀爀搀 䜀甀椀氀氀愀甀洀攀 眀愀猀 戀漀爀渀 愀琀 䘀氀攀甀爀椀攀爀Ⰰ 椀渀 琀栀攀 匀眀椀猀猀ⴀ䨀甀爀愀Ⰰ 漀渀 䘀攀戀爀甀愀爀礀 ㄀㔀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㘀㄀⸀ 䠀椀猀 最爀愀渀搀昀愀琀栀攀爀 栀愀搀 氀攀昀琀 䘀爀愀渀挀攀 昀漀爀 瀀漀氀椀琀椀挀愀氀 爀攀愀猀漀渀猀 搀甀爀椀渀最 琀栀攀 刀攀瘀漀氀甀琀椀漀渀 愀渀搀 攀猀琀愀戀氀椀猀栀攀搀 愀 眀愀琀挀栀洀愀欀椀渀最 戀甀猀椀渀攀猀猀 椀渀 䰀漀渀搀漀渀⸀ 吀栀攀 戀甀猀椀渀攀猀猀 眀愀猀 挀愀爀爀椀攀搀 漀渀 戀礀 栀椀猀 琀栀爀攀攀 猀漀渀猀 戀甀琀 䌀栀愀爀氀攀猀✀ 昀愀琀栀攀爀Ⰰ 준搀漀甀愀爀搀Ⰰ 攀瘀攀渀琀甀愀氀氀礀 爀攀琀甀爀渀攀搀 琀漀 猀攀琀琀氀攀 椀渀 䘀氀攀甀爀椀攀爀⸀ ਀䜀甀椀氀氀愀甀洀攀 爀攀挀攀椀瘀攀搀 栀椀猀 攀愀爀氀礀 攀搀甀挀愀琀椀漀渀 椀渀 一攀甀挀栀琀攀氀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 最漀椀渀最 琀漀 琀栀攀 娀甀爀椀挀栀 倀漀氀礀琀攀挀栀渀椀挀 眀栀攀爀攀 栀攀 漀戀琀愀椀渀攀搀 栀椀猀 搀漀挀琀漀爀✀猀 搀攀最爀攀攀⸀ 䠀攀 猀瀀攀渀琀 愀 猀栀漀爀琀 琀椀洀攀 愀猀 愀渀 漀昀昀椀挀攀爀 椀渀 琀栀攀 愀爀琀椀氀氀攀爀礀 戀攀昀漀爀攀 攀渀琀攀爀椀渀最 琀栀攀 䤀渀琀攀爀渀愀琀椀漀渀愀氀 䈀甀爀攀愀甀 漀昀 圀攀椀最栀琀猀 愀渀搀 䴀攀愀猀甀爀攀猀Ⰰ 愀猀 愀渀 愀猀猀椀猀琀愀渀琀Ⰰ 椀渀 ㄀㠀㠀㌀⸀ 䠀攀 戀攀挀愀洀攀 䄀猀猀漀挀椀愀琀攀 䐀椀爀攀挀琀漀爀 椀渀 ㄀㤀 ㈀ 愀渀搀 昀爀漀洀 ㄀㤀㄀㔀 甀渀琀椀氀 栀椀猀 爀攀琀椀爀攀洀攀渀琀 椀渀 ㄀㤀㌀㘀Ⰰ 栀攀 眀愀猀 䐀椀爀攀挀琀漀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䈀甀爀攀愀甀⸀ 䠀攀 爀攀洀愀椀渀攀搀 愀猀 䠀漀渀漀爀愀爀礀 䐀椀爀攀挀琀漀爀 昀爀漀洀 ㄀㤀㌀㘀 甀渀琀椀氀 栀椀猀 搀攀愀琀栀⸀ ਀㰀栀㐀㸀䐀甀爀椀渀最 栀椀猀 戀爀椀攀昀 洀椀氀椀琀愀爀礀 挀愀爀攀攀爀Ⰰ 䜀甀椀氀氀愀甀洀攀 猀琀甀搀椀攀搀 洀攀挀栀愀渀椀挀猀 愀渀搀 戀愀氀氀椀猀琀椀挀猀 戀甀琀 栀椀猀 攀愀爀氀椀攀猀琀 椀渀瘀攀猀琀椀最愀琀椀漀渀猀 愀琀 琀栀攀 戀甀爀攀愀甀 眀攀爀攀 眀椀琀栀 琀栀攀爀洀漀洀攀琀爀礀⸀ 䠀攀 挀愀爀爀椀攀搀 漀甀琀 椀洀瀀漀爀琀愀渀琀 椀渀瘀攀猀琀椀最愀琀椀漀渀猀 漀渀 挀漀爀爀攀挀琀椀漀渀猀 琀漀 洀攀爀挀甀爀礀ⴀ椀渀ⴀ最氀愀猀猀 琀栀攀爀洀漀洀攀琀攀爀猀 愀渀搀 栀攀 眀愀猀 爀攀猀瀀漀渀猀椀戀氀攀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 搀攀琀愀椀氀攀搀 挀愀氀椀戀爀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀爀洀漀洀攀琀攀爀猀 甀猀攀搀 愀琀 琀栀攀 䈀甀爀攀愀甀 椀渀 琀栀攀 攀猀琀愀戀氀椀猀栀洀攀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 琀栀攀爀洀愀氀 攀砀瀀愀渀猀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 琀栀攀 猀琀愀渀搀愀爀搀猀 漀昀 氀攀渀最琀栀⸀ 䠀攀 眀愀猀 挀漀渀挀攀爀渀攀搀 椀渀 椀渀椀琀椀愀氀 眀漀爀欀 漀渀 琀栀攀 䤀渀琀攀爀渀愀琀椀漀渀愀氀 䴀攀琀爀攀 愀渀搀 甀渀搀攀爀琀漀漀欀 愀 搀攀琀攀爀洀椀渀愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 瘀漀氀甀洀攀 漀昀 漀渀攀 欀椀氀漀最爀愀洀 漀昀 眀愀琀攀爀 戀礀 琀栀攀 挀漀渀琀愀挀琀 洀攀琀栀漀搀⸀ ਀㰀⼀栀㐀㸀㰀栀㐀㸀䄀 挀栀愀渀挀攀 漀戀猀攀爀瘀愀琀椀漀渀 戀礀 䜀甀椀氀氀愀甀洀攀 漀渀 琀栀攀 挀漀攀昀昀椀挀椀攀渀琀 漀昀 攀砀瀀愀渀猀椀漀渀 漀昀 渀椀挀欀攀氀ⴀ椀爀漀渀 愀氀氀漀礀猀 氀攀搀 琀漀 愀 猀礀猀琀攀洀愀琀椀挀 椀渀瘀攀猀琀椀最愀琀椀漀渀 漀昀 愀 眀栀漀氀攀 猀攀爀椀攀猀 漀昀 愀氀氀漀礀猀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 搀椀猀挀漀瘀攀爀礀 漀昀 椀渀瘀愀爀Ⰰ 愀渀 愀氀氀漀礀 眀椀琀栀 愀 瘀攀爀礀 氀漀眀 挀漀攀昀昀椀挀椀攀渀琀 漀昀 攀砀瀀愀渀猀椀漀渀㬀 攀氀椀渀瘀愀爀Ⰰ 昀漀爀 眀栀椀挀栀 琀栀攀 琀栀攀爀洀漀攀氀愀猀琀椀挀 挀漀攀昀昀椀挀椀攀渀琀 椀猀 瀀爀愀挀琀椀挀愀氀氀礀 稀攀爀漀Ⰰ 椀⸀攀⸀ 夀漀甀渀最✀猀 洀漀搀甀氀甀猀 挀漀渀猀琀愀渀琀Ⰰ 漀瘀攀爀 愀 挀漀渀猀椀搀攀爀愀戀氀攀 琀攀洀瀀攀爀愀琀甀爀攀 爀愀渀最攀㬀 琀漀最攀琀栀攀爀 眀椀琀栀 漀琀栀攀爀 甀猀攀昀甀氀 愀氀氀漀礀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 愀瀀瀀氀椀挀愀琀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 椀渀瘀愀爀 眀攀爀攀 焀甀椀挀欀氀礀 爀攀挀漀最渀椀稀攀搀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 洀愀琀攀爀椀愀氀 眀愀猀 甀猀攀搀 椀渀 爀愀瀀椀搀 洀攀琀栀漀搀猀 昀漀爀 琀栀攀 洀攀愀猀甀爀攀洀攀渀琀 漀昀 最攀漀搀攀琀椀挀 戀愀猀攀氀椀渀攀猀⸀ 吀栀攀 愀氀氀漀礀 椀猀 眀椀搀攀氀礀 甀猀攀搀 椀渀 椀渀猀琀爀甀洀攀渀琀猀 漀昀 瀀爀攀挀椀猀椀漀渀Ⰰ 猀甀挀栀 愀猀 琀栀攀爀洀漀猀琀愀琀猀 愀渀搀 瀀攀渀搀甀氀甀洀猀 漀昀 愀猀琀爀漀渀漀洀椀挀 挀氀漀挀欀猀⸀ 䜀甀椀氀氀愀甀洀攀✀猀 琀漀琀愀氀 挀漀洀瀀攀渀猀愀琀椀渀最 戀愀氀愀渀挀攀 昀漀爀 栀椀最栀ⴀ最爀愀搀攀 眀愀琀挀栀攀猀 愀渀搀 挀栀爀漀渀漀洀攀琀攀爀猀Ⰰ 眀栀椀挀栀 攀氀椀洀椀渀愀琀攀猀 琀栀攀 猀攀挀漀渀搀愀爀礀 攀爀爀漀爀Ⰰ 眀愀猀 瀀攀爀昀攀挀琀攀搀 戀礀 愀渀 攀氀椀渀瘀愀爀 栀愀椀爀 猀瀀爀椀渀最⸀ ਀䜀甀椀氀氀愀甀洀攀✀猀 眀漀爀欀 椀猀 爀攀挀漀爀搀攀搀 椀渀 洀愀渀礀 瀀愀瀀攀爀猀 瀀甀戀氀椀猀栀攀搀 戀礀 琀栀攀 䈀甀爀攀愀甀 愀渀搀 栀攀 栀愀猀 眀爀椀琀琀攀渀Ⰰ 愀洀漀渀最猀琀 漀琀栀攀爀 眀漀爀欀猀Ⰰ 준琀甀搀攀猀 琀栀攀爀洀漀洀琀爀椀焀甀攀猀 ⠀匀琀甀搀椀攀猀 漀渀 吀栀攀爀洀漀洀攀琀爀礀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㠀㘀⤀Ⰰ 吀爀愀椀琀 搀攀 琀栀攀爀洀漀洀琀爀椀攀 ⠀吀爀攀愀琀椀猀攀 漀渀 吀栀攀爀洀漀洀攀琀爀礀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㠀㤀⤀Ⰰ 唀渀椀琀猀 攀琀 준琀愀氀漀渀猀 ⠀唀渀椀琀猀 愀渀搀 匀琀愀渀搀愀爀搀猀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㤀㐀⤀Ⰰ 䰀攀猀 爀愀礀漀渀猀 堀 ⠀堀ⴀ刀愀礀猀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㤀㘀⤀Ⰰ 刀攀挀栀攀爀挀栀攀猀 猀甀爀 氀攀 渀椀挀欀攀氀 攀琀 猀攀猀 愀氀氀椀愀最攀猀 ⠀䤀渀瘀攀猀琀椀最愀琀椀漀渀猀 漀渀 一椀挀欀攀氀 愀渀搀 椀琀猀 䄀氀氀漀礀猀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㤀㠀⤀Ⰰ 䰀愀 瘀椀攀 搀攀 氀愀 洀愀琀椀爀攀 ⠀吀栀攀 䰀椀昀攀 漀昀 䴀愀琀琀攀爀Ⰰ ㄀㠀㤀㤀⤀Ⰰ 䰀愀 䌀漀渀瘀攀渀琀椀漀渀 搀甀 䴀琀爀攀 攀琀 氀攀 䈀甀爀攀愀甀 椀渀琀攀爀渀愀琀椀漀渀愀氀 搀攀猀 倀漀椀搀猀 攀琀 䴀攀猀甀爀攀猀 ⠀䴀攀琀爀椀挀愀氀 䌀漀渀瘀攀渀琀椀漀渀 愀渀搀 琀栀攀 䤀渀琀攀爀渀愀琀椀漀渀愀氀 䈀甀爀攀愀甀 漀昀 圀攀椀最栀琀猀 愀渀搀 䴀攀愀猀甀爀攀猀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 ㈀⤀Ⰰ 䰀攀猀 愀瀀瀀氀椀挀愀琀椀漀渀猀 搀攀猀 愀挀椀攀爀猀 愀甀 渀椀挀欀攀氀 ⠀䄀瀀瀀氀椀挀愀琀椀漀渀猀 漀昀 一椀挀欀攀氀ⴀ匀琀攀攀氀猀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 㐀⤀Ⰰ 䐀攀猀 琀愀琀猀 搀攀 氀愀 洀愀琀椀爀攀 ⠀匀琀愀琀攀猀 漀昀 䴀愀琀琀攀爀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 㜀⤀Ⰰ 䰀攀猀 爀挀攀渀琀 瀀爀漀最爀猀 搀甀 猀礀猀琀洀攀 洀琀爀椀焀甀攀 ⠀刀攀挀攀渀琀 瀀爀漀最爀攀猀猀 椀渀 琀栀攀 䴀攀琀爀椀挀 匀礀猀琀攀洀Ⰰ ㄀㤀 㜀Ⰰ ㄀㤀㄀㌀⤀⸀ 䠀椀猀 戀漀漀欀 䤀渀椀琀椀愀琀椀漀渀  氀愀 䴀挀愀渀椀焀甀攀 ⠀䤀渀琀爀漀搀甀挀琀椀漀渀 琀漀 䴀攀挀栀愀渀椀挀猀⤀ 栀愀猀 戀攀攀渀 琀爀愀渀猀氀愀琀攀搀 椀渀琀漀 猀攀瘀攀爀愀氀 氀愀渀最甀愀最攀猀⸀ ਀㰀⼀栀㐀㸀㰀栀㐀㸀䠀攀 眀愀猀 愀瀀瀀漀椀渀琀攀搀 䜀爀愀渀搀 伀昀昀椀挀攀爀 漀昀 琀栀攀 䰀攀最椀漀渀 漀昀 䠀漀渀漀甀爀 愀渀搀 爀攀挀攀椀瘀攀搀 栀漀渀漀爀愀爀礀 䐀漀挀琀漀爀 漀昀 匀挀椀攀渀挀攀 搀攀最爀攀攀猀 昀爀漀洀 琀栀攀 唀渀椀瘀攀爀猀椀琀椀攀猀 漀昀 䜀攀渀攀瘀愀Ⰰ 一攀甀挀栀愀琀攀氀 愀渀搀 倀愀爀椀猀⸀ 䠀攀 眀愀猀 愀 倀爀攀猀椀搀攀渀琀 漀昀 琀栀攀 匀漀挀椀琀 䘀爀愀渀愀椀猀攀 搀攀 倀栀礀猀椀焀甀攀 愀渀搀 愀 洀攀洀戀攀爀Ⰰ 栀漀渀漀爀愀爀礀 洀攀洀戀攀爀 漀爀 挀漀爀爀攀猀瀀漀渀搀椀渀最 洀攀洀戀攀爀 漀昀 洀漀爀攀 琀栀愀渀 愀 搀漀稀攀渀 漀昀 琀栀攀 氀攀愀搀椀渀最 猀挀椀攀渀琀椀昀椀挀 愀挀愀搀攀洀椀攀猀 漀昀 䔀甀爀漀瀀攀⸀ ਀䌀栀愀爀氀攀猀ⴀ준搀漀甀愀爀搀 䜀甀椀氀氀愀甀洀攀 洀愀爀爀椀攀搀 䴀氀氀攀⸀ 䄀⸀䴀⸀ 吀愀甀昀昀氀椀攀戀 椀渀 ㄀㠀㠀㠀⸀ 吀栀攀礀 栀愀搀 琀栀爀攀攀 挀栀椀氀搀爀攀渀⸀ 䠀攀 搀椀攀搀 漀渀 䴀愀礀 ㄀㌀Ⰰ ㄀㤀㌀㠀⸀ ਀㰀⼀栀㐀㸀 ਀ ਀ ਀㰀⼀瀀㸀 ਀ ਀ ਀ ਀ ਀ ਀ ਀ऀऀ㰀琀愀戀氀攀 愀氀椀最渀㴀挀攀渀琀攀爀㸀㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀 愀氀椀最渀㴀挀攀渀琀攀爀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀栀椀琀甀渀椀挀⸀挀漀洀⼀琀漀瀀⼀∀ 琀愀爀最攀琀㴀∀开琀漀瀀∀㸀 free web hits counter਀ऀऀ㰀琀爀㸀㰀琀搀 愀氀椀最渀㴀挀攀渀琀攀爀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀栀椀琀甀渀椀挀⸀挀漀洀⼀∀㸀㰀昀漀渀琀 挀氀愀猀猀㴀猀洀愀氀氀㸀昀爀攀攀 眀攀戀 栀椀琀猀 挀漀甀渀琀攀爀㰀⼀昀漀渀琀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀⼀琀搀㸀㰀⼀琀爀㸀㰀⼀琀愀戀氀攀㸀 ਀ ਀㰀℀ⴀⴀ 匀吀䄀刀吀 伀䘀 戀爀愀椀渀礀最漀漀猀攀 䌀伀䐀䔀 ⴀⴀ㸀㰀瀀 猀琀礀氀攀㴀∀昀漀渀琀ⴀ猀椀稀攀㨀 㘀瀀琀㬀 挀漀氀漀爀㨀 ⌀ 㬀 昀漀渀琀ⴀ昀愀洀椀氀礀㨀 瘀攀爀搀愀渀愀∀㸀㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀戀爀愀椀渀礀最漀漀猀攀⸀挀漀洀∀ 琀愀爀最攀琀㴀∀戀挀∀㸀㰀椀洀最 猀爀挀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀眀眀眀⸀戀爀愀椀渀礀最漀漀猀攀⸀挀漀洀⼀洀攀搀椀愀⼀挀栀愀氀欀㄀㌀⸀最椀昀∀ 眀椀搀琀栀㴀∀㌀㔀∀ 栀攀椀最栀琀㴀∀㌀ ∀ 戀漀爀搀攀爀㴀∀ ∀ 愀氀琀㴀∀䜀攀渀爀礀⼀䴀愀氀攀⼀㈀㄀ⴀ㈀㔀⸀ 䰀椀瘀攀猀 椀渀 唀渀椀琀攀搀 匀琀愀琀攀猀⼀䤀䰀⼀䌀栀椀挀愀最漀Ⰰ 猀瀀攀愀欀猀 䔀渀最氀椀猀栀 愀渀搀 䤀琀愀氀椀愀渀⸀ 䔀礀攀 挀漀氀漀爀 椀猀 戀爀漀眀渀⸀ 䤀 愀洀 洀甀猀挀甀氀愀爀⸀ 䤀 愀洀 愀氀猀漀 瀀愀猀猀椀瘀攀⸀ 䴀礀 椀渀琀攀爀攀猀琀猀 愀爀攀 戀漀搀礀戀甀氀搀椀渀最⼀猀眀椀洀椀渀最⸀∀ 琀椀琀氀攀㴀∀䜀攀渀爀礀⼀䴀愀氀攀⼀㈀㄀ⴀ㈀㔀⸀ 䰀椀瘀攀猀 椀渀 唀渀椀琀攀搀 匀琀愀琀攀猀⼀䤀䰀⼀䌀栀椀挀愀最漀Ⰰ 猀瀀攀愀欀猀 䔀渀最氀椀猀栀 愀渀搀 䤀琀愀氀椀愀渀⸀ 䔀礀攀 挀漀氀漀爀 椀猀 戀爀漀眀渀⸀ 䤀 愀洀 洀甀猀挀甀氀愀爀⸀ 䤀 愀洀 愀氀猀漀 瀀愀猀猀椀瘀攀⸀ 䴀礀 椀渀琀攀爀攀猀琀猀 愀爀攀 戀漀搀礀戀甀氀搀椀渀最⼀猀眀椀洀椀渀最⸀∀ ⼀㸀㰀⼀愀㸀㰀戀爀㸀㰀戀㸀吀栀椀猀 椀猀 洀礀 䈀爀愀椀渀礀䜀漀漀猀攀㨀㰀戀爀㸀唀渀椀琀攀搀 匀琀愀琀攀猀Ⰰ 䤀䰀Ⰰ 䌀栀椀挀愀最漀Ⰰ 䔀渀最氀椀猀栀Ⰰ 䤀琀愀氀椀愀渀Ⰰ 䜀攀渀爀礀Ⰰ 䴀愀氀攀Ⰰ ㈀㄀ⴀ㈀㔀Ⰰ 戀漀搀礀戀甀氀搀椀渀最Ⰰ 猀眀椀洀椀渀最⸀㰀⼀戀㸀㰀⼀瀀㸀㰀℀ⴀⴀ 䔀一䐀 伀䘀 戀爀愀椀渀礀最漀漀猀攀 䌀伀䐀䔀 ⴀⴀ㸀 ਀ ਀猀瀀漀渀猀漀爀猀 氀椀渀欀 㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀琀甀渀椀渀最 㘀㌀⸀爀甀⼀∀㸀䈀丄㴄㠄㴄㌄  ㈄䈄㸄㰄⼀愀㸀 㰀戀爀㸀  㰀愀 栀爀攀昀㴀∀栀琀琀瀀㨀⼀⼀爀攀最椀漀渀琀攀栀猀渀愀戀⸀爀甀⼀∀㸀䈀丄㴄㠄㴄㌄ 㰀〄䠄㠄㴄㰄⼀愀㸀 ਀㰀⼀戀漀搀礀㸀